By using standard precast units of Y-junction branch pipelines, it is beyond doubt that joints between branched pipelines and main pipelines are properly formed and the quality of joints is relatively less dependent on workmanship.
However, it suffers from the problem that with fixed precast units of Y-junctions, sometimes it may be difficult for contractors to determine the precise orientation of specific angles of Y-junctions with respect to gullies.
gullies are connected through side branches to carrier drains) By forming elliptical holes in main pipelines and fitting the side branches into them with cement mortar, the quality of pipe joints is highly dependent on workmanship.
It is commonly found that in subsequent CCTV inspections side branches are projected inside main pipes.
This is undesirable because the projected side branches reduce the cross sectional area of main pipes locally and affect their hydraulic performance.
Moreover, the projected side pipes may trap rubbish and dirt in the vicinity.
On the other hand, cement mortar may not be properly applied at connection joints because these areas are hidden from view and are difficult to be inspected by engineers.
Therefore, in selecting between the two available methods, engineers should make their own judgments based on the above considerations.